Hamburg, Donald T. Print book : English View all editions and formats. The association between gender-conformity pressure and academic self-efficacy.
Reproductive endocrinology: Physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. In this case, the presence of an opposite-sex sibling may work as a gender neutralizer on the family environment Brim, ; Rust et al. Journal of Sex Research. Sex Roles.
It is of vital importance to compare gender-differentiated parenting within families to gender-differentiated parenting between families to account for such factors. Implicit and explicit occupational gender stereotypes. Dissociable neural correlates of stereotypes and other forms of semantic knowledge.
New York: A social learning view of sex differences in behavior in Thunder Bay. Community division by modularity produced 6 clusters Table 2 and a modularity of 0. If individual or asocial learning is occurring, then it may be more common to have mixed groups, comprised of individuals that engage in different foraging strategies [ 19 ].
This human-related foraging can lead to social segregation, as observed between bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp. Since then, changes to fisheries rules have led to a decrease in trawling in the area, and the social network of the dolphins has become less differentiated [ 41 ].
Conversely, if social learning were responsible for a behavior, one would expect to see groups of individuals that spend the most time together demonstrating similar behaviors. Common bottlenose dolphins have shown higher rates of association with other individuals engaged in the same foraging class when part of the population was known to engage in foraging around anthropogenic feeding stations such as trawlers or aquaculture farms [ 8 — 9 ] or cooperative fishing with fishermen [ 10 ].
Therefore, in larger study areas where the entire area is not covered during each survey, setting the sampling period to a longer time period is important.
Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. It is of vital importance to compare gender-differentiated parenting within families to gender-differentiated parenting between families to account for such factors. Parents have also been found to treat boys and girls differently with regard to physical care in non-Western societies or financial investments in Western societies for a review, see Lundberg, , emotion socialization e.
Journal of Educational Psychology. Developmental Review. Thus, these results need to be interpreted with caution.