However, if the distorter increases to an appreciable frequency, it will skew the population sex ratio. Haig D, Grafen A. II Linkage modification in the segregation distortion system. The Piwi-piRNA pathway provides an adaptive defense in the transposon arms race.
Male-driven evolution of DNA sequences. Dorer DR, Henikoff S. Results based on the silkworm genome sequence show that genes expressed exclusively in testis are overrepresented on the Z chromosome 5. Young sex chromosome systems that are still in genetic conflict and sex chromosome evolution auto in Warragul-Drouen process of differentiation are more suitable for studying Y degeneration.
For example, in the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaristhe X and Y cannot be distinguished under the micrososcopewhereas in butterflies, the W is generally much smaller than the Z chromosome, forming heterochromatic bodies in the cell Genetics of hybrid incompatibility between Lycopersicon esculentum and L.
First, some de novo genes with testis-specific expression might be segregation distorters.
Fine-scale genetic analyses that genetic conflict and sex chromosome evolution auto in Warragul-Drouen demonstrate a large Z-effect for hybrid female sterility would confirm that Haldane's rule has similar genetic bases in XY and ZW taxa, and the identity and function of hybrid sterility loci would confirm or refute a role for sex-ratio distortion.
Orr HA, et al. First, some de novo genes with testis-specific expression might be segregation distorters. The nucleo-mitochondrial conflict in cytoplasmic male sterilities revisited. Haploid males in these species develop from unfertilized eggs, generate sperm through mitosis, and thus cannot evolve segregation distorters.
Acknowledgements We thank Daven Presgraves for discussions and comments that greatly improved this manuscript and the presentation of these ideas. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus. Silencing of unpaired chromatin and histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian meiosis.
Mihola O, et al. Heterogenous accumulation of hybrid incompatibilities, degree of dominance, and implications for Haldane's Rule.