But, curiously, the absence of recombination may not always lead to a reduction in diversity in the nonrecombining region. Similarly, autosomal variation across 31 Heliconius butterflies H. Both sex-independent and sex-biased demography will affect neutral diversity on the sex chromosomes Box 3; fig.
Genetics 3 — The role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
When measuring patterns of genetic variation across the genome, one must consider that mutations will accumulate at different rates across genomic regions. Within this region lie a number of plausible candidate genes Fig.
The X chromosome in African D. Figure 2.
Someone who has one abnormal gene but no symptoms is called a carrier. Whether you are a male or female depends on the presence or absence of certain chromosomes. Females therefore have 23 homologous chromosome pairs, while males have They are composed of DNA and proteins and are located within the nucleus of our cells.
See also: Sexual differentiation in humans. Genome Research.
Download references. Skewing could also influence expression patterns of common allelic variants in genes that are subject to X-inactivation. AmiGO 2 v. Acknowledgments I sincerely thank three anonymous reviewers whose comments pointed me to additional literature and significantly improved the structure and flow of the manuscript.
Though behavioural differences partly explain sex bias in infection susceptibility [ 8 ], sex differences in the immune response in animal models under controlled laboratory conditions indicate the role of biological differences [ 9 ].