As mentioned, it is uncertain whether or not there are two distinct gonadotropins in lower forms, but their separate action is well defined in mammals. Pyloric tissue aromatase levels were similar in all groups, including CM rats, suggesting that localized estrogen production by pyloric aromatase does not contribute to gastroparesis in our model Fig.
J Biol Chem. Submit Feedback.
Subsequent experiments by this group showed that the anti-proliferation effects of WIN55, in females were mediated by its action on CB 2 receptors. Published online May This effect was not due to differences in downregulation of CB 1 receptors, which was similar across groups Burston, et al.
This is surprising since preclinical research can provide a wealth of data not only on sex differences in models reflecting the onset of stress-related psychiatric disorders, but also on the regulation of the stress reaction in male and female animals Palanza ; Schmidt et al.
Gend Med. Several studies also report that cannabinoid agonists are more potent in female than male adult rats in decreasing locomotor activity Craft, et al. The genetics of gender and life span. Coronavirus Major difference between male and female sex hormones in El Paso U.
Corticosteroid binding globulin CBG is also found in higher amounts in female than male rats.
Changes in localized expression of receptors could alter downstream pathways directly at the pylorus, bypassing the vagal center, and play a role in the development of diabetic gastroparesis via tissue specific mechanisms, possibly through NO signaling.
Accessed B The level of AR was normalized to that of actin by densitometric analysis and expressed as arbitrary units. The effects were suspected to be from residual pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and increased expression of insulin receptors in the liver [ 9 ].
Since total values of sex hormones or aromatase could not be directly linked to the development of gastroparesis, we examined localized expression of ER and AR in the pylorus. Load Previous Page.
C The difference between fasting and post-feeding acetaminophen levels is used as the index of gastric emptying. Testosterone, which is bound to a protein as it circulates in human blood, can be converted to the compound androstenedione from which it is formed, especially in the liver and in muscle; both compounds are metabolized, mainly in the liver, to substances that are excreted in urine.
These glands also release pepsinogen, which is the inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin , but this process is primarily under nervous control. Methods We injected male rats with streptozotocin STZ to model type I diabetes, as confirmed by blood glucose levels.
B The level of AR was normalized to that of actin by densitometric analysis and expressed as arbitrary units.